OPF Glossary - E

business that is primarily carried out electronically over various networks (e.g., intranets, extranets, and/or the Internet using the World Wide Web) and that typically uses Web technology to:
the selling and buying of goods and services electronically (e.g., over the Internet using the World Wide Web) including:
(1) a user-oriented quality requirement specifying the degree to which an application or component effectively uses (i.e., minimizes its consumption of) its computing (e.g., memory, processor) and personnel (e.g., operations, user support) resources.
(2) a quantitative quality factor measuring the degree to which an application or component effectively uses its memory and computing resources.
elicitory prototype
a throw-away prototype that is used to elicit requirements (e.g., a human user interface prototype).
Contrast with comparitive prototype and demonstrative prototype.
email server
a server computer that is primarily used to offload e-mail sending and receiving from an application server.
a website consisting of multiple e-stores.
an Internet-based marketplace, sponsored by an intermediary, that connects multiple buyers and sellers via a new business model that delivers associated value-added services such as catalog management, ordering, payment, and fulfillment.
embedded computer
a computer (usually a microprocessor) that is incorporated as an integral part into a hardware component and that is dedicated to performing specific functions of its encapsulating hardware component.
For example, the computers embedded in microwave ovens, smart phones, and automobiles.
the software implementation technique that physically localizes features into a single blackbox abstraction that hides their implementation details (and associated design decisions) behind a public interface.
a security mechanism that uses a key to scramble data so that it is not readable until decrypted with an associated key.
Contrast with decryption.
a major venture undertaken to achieve one or more business goals.
See also enterprise, program, and project.
endeavor manager
the role that is played when a person performs management tasks on an endeavor.
endeavor debrief report
the quality work product that captures the results of the debrief (a.k.a., post mortem or sunset) walkthrough.
end user
the role that is played by a person who uses an application for personal or business reasons (but who neither supports, maintains, nor operates the application).
a delivery stage covered by a single statement of work.
the role that is played when a person performs engineering tasks on an endeavor.
an endeavor modeling a business including all of its programs.
Contrast with program and project.
enterprise architecture
an enterprise-wide architecture that captures common architectural decisions that are common and enforced across all applications and data centers within an enterprise.
entity relationship (ER) diagram
a diagram used for data modeling and design that depicts a set of real-world entities and the logical relationships between them.
entity relationship attribute (ERA) diagram
a diagram used for data modeling and design that depicts a set of real-world entities, their attributes, and the logical relationships between them.
the hardware, operating system, programming language virtual machine, and browser on which the software components of an application execute.
environments engineering
the activity of producing and maintaining the development, test, and production environments.
environments inspection team
the team that inspects the work products that are produced by the environments team.
environments team
the team that produces and maintains the endeavor environments.
environments work products
the cohesive set of work products that may be produced during the environments engineering activity.
equivalence class partitioning
the testing technique that partitions the potential inputs of a program under test into a finite number of classes [sets] in order to identify a minimal set of test cases, one test case for each equivalence set.
Note that the sets of potential test cases are called equivalence sets because all members of a set should cause the same qualitative behavior if the software is correctly implemented.
Note that the two types of input equivalence classes are valid and invalid.
the mistake that a human makes that results in the existence of a defect in the work product. Thus, a human error causes a defect, which in turn may cause one or more failures.
error guessing
a testing technique whereby the tester selects test cases based on inputs that seem likely to cause failures.
error seeding
a testing technique whereby the tester intentionally incorporates known defects into a computer program for the purpose of estimating the number of remaining preexisting defects by observing the rate of detection and removal of the seeded defects.
essential use case
a use case that contains absolutely no design constraints and is therefore used to specify operational requirements.
a customer's overall plans for performing e-business as documented in a strategy document. An e-strategy should be based on a customer analysis, user analysis and market analysis, and business case. An e-strategy includes an appropriate [potentially reengineered] business model and a list of prioritized projects.
evolutionary prototype
a prototype that evolves into the actual application during an iterative, incremental development cycle.
Contrast with throw-away prototype.
the violation of an assertion (i.e., a failure of the associated operation to execute successfully).
exceptional path
any use case path through a use case that captures an exceptional (error) situation.
Contrast with normal path.
(1) a developer-oriented quality requirement specifying the degree to which the system shall be able to be modified to meet changing requirements or goals.
(2) a quality factor measuring the ease with which the system can be modified to meet changing requirements or goals, typically measured in terms of the average amount of time average developers require to make average modifications.
See also maintainability.
any thing that is external to (i.e., outside of) the work product to be developed and that is relevant to the development process because the external interfaces with it, either directly or indirectly.
Note that the thing to be developed can be an:
Note that an external can be any:
Note that an external may act on, or be acted on, by the work product to be developed.
external API requirement
a requirement concerning an application programmer interface (API) between an application and an external system or application.
Contrast with design constraint, informational requirement, operational requirement, and quality requirement.
external API specification (EAPIS)
an optional deliverable document that formally specifies the programmatic interfaces to all external applications.
external content source
an external that is a source of reusable content that can be acquired for entry into a content management system.
a private network that enables multiple organizations (e.g., businesses) to securely share information and conduct business.
Contrast with Internet and intranet.
eXtreme Programming (XP)
a lightweight software development method that has its origins in the Smalltalk community. XP emphasizes programming and minimizes documentation.